Bronze, height 57 cm (including sword).
Single unique cast, with the core still inside (see X-ray photo below).
Created before 1940.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Schwertträger’ depicted on a postcard issued by the ‘Film Foto Verlag’, Berlin.
Direct Lost-Wax Casting – the Single Unique Cast
In the direct lost-wax casting process (also named ‘cire perdue’), the sculptor begins by building a roughly modelled clay-core over a metal armature. The clay-core is baked to harden it and drive off moisture, and then a relatively thin layer of wax is applied that receives the detailing of anatomy, texture, facial features and signature. A mold is formed around the wax-model, when the mold is heated the wax melts and creates a space into which molten bronze is poured. Once the bronze is cast, the clay-core and armature can be removed to lessen the weight of the finished sculpture. Occasionally the core and armature rods are -in whole or in part- left inside the bronze. On sculptures meant to be placed outdoors, the clay-core and iron-armature are generally removed in order to avoid damage from absorption of water.
The direct lost wax technique allows the artist to cast directly off of the original model, and is ideal for wax models with complex surface textures as well as large and complex compositions. This casting method produces a Single Unique Cast from a Single Model (as opposed to one that is cast from a mold of an existing model). The original master model is lost in the casting process: producing more copies of the master model is impossible.
When X-ray photos show iron armature or internal frame inside the bronze, it is evident that the direct lost wax casting technique was used and that we have to do with the original cast/model.
X-ray photo of ‘Schwertträger’. Visible are the several iron wires from the core inside.
The Nacked German Warrior
The symbol of the ‘Nacked German Warrior’ is related to the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: writing in 98 A. D. the Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus describes the Germans as a tall, red haired, blue-eyed ‘race unmixed by intermarriage with other races, a peculiar people and pure, like no one but themselves’.
In Tacitus we find the first German hero, Arminius (Hermann der Cherusker), the Roman-trained prince of the Cherusci tribe, who, returning to his Germanic roots, united his people and led a decisive battle against the Roman army in 9 A.D. in the Teutoburg Forest. Led by German guides into the impenetrable forest, the legions of Publius Quintilius Varus, comprising the entire Roman occupation army of more than 20,000 men, were ambushed and annihilated by naked German warriors hurling spears from behind the trees. The Romans would never regain the territory east of the Rhine. From the mid 18th-century, the story of Arminius, the ‘Liberator Germaniae’ has been an inspiration to German nationalists.
Also from Celtic warriors is known that they fought naked: towards the end of the 3rd century B.C., a coalition of Celtic tribes attacked the Roman Republic. One of the decisive battles during this war was the Battle of Telamon (225 BC). The ancient writer Polybius writes about ‘a tribe of Celtic warriors who had the habit of fighting naked’. According to Polybius they fought naked for three reasons: first of all, this was meant to display their confidence, both to their allies, and to the enemy. Secondly, it seems that it was more efficient to fight this way, ‘thinking that thus they would be more efficient, as some of the ground was overgrown with brambles which would catch in their clothes and impede the use of their weapons.’ Thirdly, the sight of naked warriors was also intended to intimidate the enemy.
|– condition||: II sword is restored|
|– size||: height 57 cm, including sword|
|– signed||: at the foot “HAFFENRICHTER’|
|– type||: bronze, with mark ‘Guss HEINZE & BARTH BERLIN’|
|– misc.||: sculpture was in possession of the widow of Haffenrichter|
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BIOGRAPHY: HANS HAFFENRICHTER
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Falkner’ (‘Falconer’), created in 1938 and placed in front of the entrance of the ‘Verein Bildende Künstler’ (Berlin Art Association) in Berlin. A small iron copy of ‘Falkner’ was previously in the possession of the widow of Haffenrichter.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Der Bogenschütze’ (‘The Archer’), postcard.
Right: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Seeadler’ (‘See-eagle’), postcard.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Eurydike’, depicted in ‘Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1940. A bust of ‘Eurydike’ created in zinc was displayed at the ‘Herbst-Ausstellung 1942’, Preussisches Akademie der Künste.
In Greek mythology, Eurydice (Eurydike) was an oak nymph or one of the daughters of Apollo (the god of music, prophecy, and light, who also drove the sun chariot, ‘adopting’ the power as god of the Sun from the primordial god Helios). She was the wife of Orpheus, who tried to bring her back from the dead with his enchanting music.
‘Eurydike’ by Haffenrichter depicted on postcards.
In 2014 a bronze cast of Eurydike was sold by an Italian auction house. Height 105 cm.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Führerbüste’, depicted on the cover of ‘Die Kunstkammer’, April 1936 (‘published by the ‘Präsident der Reichskammer der bildenden Künste’).
Right: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Der Führer‘. Depicted in ‘Kunst und Volk’, April 1936.
Führerbüste by Haffenrichter depicted on a postcard.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Bust of Hermann Göring’, depicted in ‘Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1943.
Right: a bronze bust of Göring by Haffenrichter in the possession of an Amercan gallery. Height 42 cm including base.
Below: a Göring bust by Haffenrichter depicted on a postcard.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Arbeiter‘ (‘Workman‘). Depicted in ‘Kunst und Volk‘, March 1936.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Der Klang’ (‘Timbre’), depicted on postcards. ‘Der Klang’ was displayed at the ‘Frühjahrs – Ausstelling 1942’, Preussische Akademie der Künste, Berlin.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Akt’ (‘Nude’). Height 42 cm. Sold by a Swedish auction house in 2010.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Eagle by Professor Haffenrichter / Aluminium-cast’). Advertisment by foundry Hermann Noack, Berlin, in ‘Kunst und Volk, -NS-Gemeinde’, June, 1937.
‘Adler’ by Haffenrichter. Aluminum-cast. Depicted in ‘Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte’, 1937, Heft 87.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Johann Sebastian Bach’, depicted on postcards. Displayed at the GDK 1941 room 31.
Right: ‘Bach’ by Hans Haffenrichter, depicted in ‘Zeitschrift für Musik’, 102. Jahrgang 1935.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Bust of Mozart’, depicted on postcards. In the possession of Museum im Kulturspeicher, Würzberg.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Bust of Hermann Löns’. In the possession of the Historisches Museum Hamburg.
Hermann Löns (1866 – 1914) was a German journalist and writer. He is most famous as ‘The Poet of the Heath’ for his novels and poems celebrating the people and landscape of the North German moors, particularly the Lüneburg Heath in Lower Saxony. Löns is well known in Germany for his famous folksongs. Löns was killed in World War I and his purported remains were later used by the Nazi government for propaganda purposes.
Right: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Bust of pianist Martin H. Steinkrüger’.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Geheimrat Prof. Dr. C. Bosch’. Zinc. Displayed at the ‘Herbstausstellung der Preussische Akademie der Künste’, 1942, Berlin.
Dr. Carl Bosch (1874 – 1940), famous Chemist, held the title ‘Geheimrat’, an honorific title which was an award for outstanding contributions in the field of commerce, industry, or medicine. Carl Bosch served from 1925 onwards as CEO of IG Farben AG and from 1935 onwards as Chairman of the Supervisory Board. He was also President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Bust of Tilman Riemenschneider’. In the possession of Museum im Kulturspeicher, Würzburg. Riemenschneider (1460 – 1531) was a German sculptor and woodcarver active in Würzburg. He was one of the most prolific and versatile sculptors of the transition period between late Gothic and Renaissance, a master in stone and limewood.
Right: ‘Tilman Riemenschneider’ by Haffenrichter depicted on postcards.
Hans Haffenrichter, Bust of Luther, located next to the cloakroom of the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Kirche, Onkel-Tom Strasse, Berlin. Situation 2020. Plans are to change the name of the Church, to change the name of the street and to remove the bust from its place.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Läufer’ (‘Runner’), bronze. Height 37 cm.
Right: Hans Haffenrichter, ’Langstreckenlauf’ (’Marathon’). Depicted in ‘Kunst und Volk’, January 1936.
‘Läufer’ depicted on a postcard.
Exhibition ‘Deutsches Volk – Deutsche Arbeit’, 1934. View in the Chemical Hall. Artistic design by Hans Haffenrichter. Depicted in ‘Baugilde, Zeitschrift der Fachgruppe Architektur in der Reichskammer der Bildende Künste, 1937.
Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Figurine, Lansquenet’ (‘Figure of a Lancer, -footsoldier’). Woodcut, displayed at the Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar, July- September 1923.
Left: depicted in the 1923 Bauhaus exhibition catalog.
Right: advertisement of the Bauhaus exhibition in a newspaper in 1923.
Other designs by Haffenrichter from his Bauhaus-time:
Hans Haffenrichter, two sculptures from his Bauhaus-period. Both photos have a stamp on the backsite reading: ‘Prof. H. Haffenrichter, Heroldsöd 15, Hittenkirchen, 8214 Bernau, Chiemsee’.
Left: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Kniende’ (‘Kneeling’), around 1923. Plaster in Bauhaus-style, height 31,5 cm. Bought in 2011 by the Museum Kulturspeicher in Würzburg. Displayed in 1992 at the exhibition ‘Spuren von Natur und Kosmos’ in Würzburg.
Right: Hans Haffenrichter, ‘Weibliche Figur’ (‘Female Figure’), 1923. Pastel-drawing, 60 x 89 cm. In the possession of the Universitätsmuseum für Kunst- und Kulturgeschichte, Marburg.
Hans Haffenrichter, near Chiemsee, 1977.
Hans Haffenrichter (1897–1981), born in Würzburg as the son of a printer, was a German painter, graphic designer and sculptor. Haffenrichter originally planned to become a craftsman. He followed some courses in mechanics (Mechaniker-Lehre) at a workshop of the University of Würzburg, and then served in World War I. From 1919 to 1920 he went to the Kunstschule Nürnberg. From 1921 to 1924 he studied painting, sculpturing and theatre decoration at the Bauhaus in Weimar under Oskar Schlemmer and Lothar Schreyer; here he also met Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky. Haffenrichter completed his education at the Königlich Dänischen Kunstakademy in Copenhagen in 1925. His works showed abstract tendencies influenced by his Bauhaus period, with the exception of the period 1933–1945. He exhibited in 1923 in the Sturm-Galerie in Berlin. In 1927 he took part in the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung and a year later again with three bronze statues. From 1927 to 1931 he was Director of the Art School ‘Der Weg’ in Berlin; in 1931 he was granted the professor title for Arts & Crafts at the Pädagogischen Akademie Elbing. After the Nazi’s came to power, Haffenrichter – being Bauhaus-trained (‘Bolshevik art’) – was fired in 1933. However, he did not get a ‘Berufsverbot’. He was admitted to the Reichskulturkammer as ‘professor Hans Haffenrichter’ and became a member of the ‘NS-Kampfbund für deutsche Kultur’, a militant League for German Culture led by Alfred Rosenberg (later renamed ‘Nationalsozialistische Kulturgemeinde’). Haffenrichter, not a member of the NSDAP, was able to continue working in his own atelier in Berlin and was commissioned to create several busts of Hitler and Göring (both were also printed on postcards). One of his Hitler busts was depicted on the cover of ’Die Kunstkammer’, April 1936, a magazine published by the ‘Präsident der Reichskammer der bildenden Künste’. A Göring bust by Haffenrichter was depicted in ‘Die Kunst im Deutschen Reich’, 1943; two years later the same magazine published on two full pages his bronze ‘Eurydike’ (‘Eurydice’ was also printed in 9 different versions on postcards by the ‘Film Foto Verlag’, Berlin). Commissions for other busts followed. Haffenrichter portrayed, amongst others, Johann Sebastian Bach, Mozart, composer Heinrich Schütz (destined for the city hall of Dresden), Luther, Hermann Löns, the pianist Martin H. Steinkrüger and sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider.
In 1934 Haffenrichter was responsible for the artistic design of the ‘Chemical Hall’ of the exhibition ‘Deutsches Volk – Deutsche Arbeit’ (his industrial designs were depicted in ‘Baugilde, Zeitschrift der Fachgruppe Architektur in der Reichskammer der Bildende Künste, 1937’).
In 1935 Haffenrichter displayed a Luther bust at the ‘Austellung Berliner Kunst’, an exhibition under the patronage of the ‘Reichsminister für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda und Präsident der Rechskulturkammer Dr. Goebbels’. A year later he displayed the Luther bust at the exhibition ‘Heroische Kunst’, NS-Kulturgemeinde, Städtischen Galerie, Lenbach-Haus, Munich.
It is unclear whether Haffenrichter’s abstract works from his Bauhaus period were displayed at the infamous 1937 exhibition ‘Entartete Kunst’ in Munich. In 1939 he moved his family to Copenhagen, were studied in the 20s, but Haffenrichter himself stayed in Germany.
He was represented at several exhibitions organised by the ‘Preussische Akademie der Künste in Berlin, for example at the ‘Frühjahrs-Ausstellung 1941’, at the ‘Frühjahrs-Ausstellung 1942’ with ‘Der Klang’, the ‘Herbstausstellung 1942’, and at the ‘Frühjahrsausstellung 1943’ with a bust of Luther. In 1938 the impressive ‘Falconer’, a life-size bronze by Haffenrichter, was placed in front of the entrance of the building of the Berlin Art Association. In 1940 Haffenrichter created a ‘Bärenbrunnen’ (‘bear-fountain’) for the Kurfürstendamm in Berlin; the fountain created in lime-shell is lost. In the same year he made a Siberian Tiger which was place on the grounds of a military barrack in Hamburg.
At the Great German Art Exhibitions, he was represented with seven works, one of them being the bust of Johann Sebastian Bach. Almost 30 different postcards depicting sculptures by Haffenrichter were issued by the ‘Film Foto Verlag’ in Berlin. In the years 1943/44 Haffenrichter was conscripted to work as scientific draft man at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie, where he specialized in the drawing of atomic and molecular structures. During the Third Reich the Berlin foundry Noack cast at least 87 bronzes by Haffenrichter. After the war, he worked as an art teacher at the Information and Education Center of the US Army in Heidelberg, and from 1949 to 1952 he headed the department of Wall Painting of the Werkkunstschule in Wiesbaden.
In 1953 he was commissioned for a glass mosaic for the ‘Hamburgische Elektrizitätswerke’. Other commissioned works by the industry followed, including several huge glass mosaics and glass windows for the: ‘Mineralogisch-Petrologische Institut und Museum’ of the Bonn University (1955, 1956), for the ‘Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik’ in Ludwigshafen (1955), again for the ‘Hamburgischen Electricitäts-Werke AG’ (1958 and 1961), for the ‘Rheinisch-Westfälische Elektrizitätswerk AG’ in Essen (1961), for the ‘Versicherung Iduna’ in Hamburg (1961) and for the ‘Osram Werk’ in Schwabmünchen and in Augsburg (1961).
In 1961 he moved to Hittenkirchen/Heroldsöd am Chiemsee. In 1963 he created a bronze Wild Boar for the city of Eberbach; 3 respectively 9 years later he created bronzes for two fountains in the same city. In Heidelberg Haffenrichter created in 1925% a ‘Reiherbrunnen’ (‘Heron-fountain); another bronze was created for the Städtische Museum in Mönchen-Gladbach.
Hans Haffenrichter died in 1981 in Prien am Chiemsee.
A Luther bust by Haffenrichter is in the possession of the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Church in Berlin. ‘Kniende’ (created around 1923) and busts of Tilman Riemenschneider and Mozart are in the possession of the ‘Museum im Kulturspeicher’, Würzburg. A bust of Hermann Löns is in the possession of the Historisches Museum Hannover.