Ludwig Dettmann, Der letzte der Vorbeiziehenden am Abend des 7. August

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‘Last Visitor at the Evening of 7. August’ (‘Der letzte der Vorbeiziehenden am Abend des 7. August’)
Displayed at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung 1934.

Former President Paul von Hindenburg lying in state in the Hindenburg Tower of the Tannenberg Memorial, 7 August 1934 (‘Die Aufbahrung Paul von Hindenburgs im Hindenburg-Turm des Tannenberg-Denkmales, 7 August 1934’). Depicted is the last visitor -of 200.000- that day.
‘Around 120.000 people gathered to the south of Tannenberg Memorial. Once the official part of the ceremony was over, they filed past Hindenburg’s coffin in one of the memorial’s towers. Up to 200.000 people seized the opportunity on 7 August alone. The tower remained open for two weeks, and countless special trains carried a steady stream of visitors to nearby Hohenstein railway station and on the to memorial from there on special buses’

Dettmann’s Funeral and Laying in State depictions
In 1888 Ludwig Dettmann painted ‘Vor dem Kaiserlichen Palais am Morgen des 9. März’, a depiction of people gathering together in front of the Royal Palace in Berlin, after the news of the death of Wilhelm I. Shortly later Dettmann depicted -together with Martin Rehder- the lying in state of Kaiser Wilhelm I.  In a third work he depicted the midnight torchlight procession, bringing the body of Wilhelm I from the Alten Palast to the Dom. Again in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors, Dettmann painted the lying in state of Kaiser Friedrich III, the successor of Wilhelm I (the works are described in the Vossische Zeitung, 12 July 1888, and in ‘Ludwig Dettmann, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’, Monika Potztal, 2008). In 1897 Dettmann also portrayed the lying in state of Heinrich von Stephan (1831 – 1897), the legendary Minister of Postal Services of the German Empire, founder of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, and the one who introduced in 1877 the telephone to Germany (in the possession of the ‘Stiftung Museum für Post und Kommunikation’ in Frankfurt (photo below).
At the Grosse Berliner Kunst Ausstellung 1934 Dettmann displayed 18 paintings of which 7 works were dealing with the funeral and funeral procession of Paul von Hindenburg:
‘Das Volk zieht, seinen toten Feldherrn grüssend, am Marchallturm vorbei, 7 August 1934’ (‘People passing the Marschallturm salute their dead Field Marschal, 7 August 1934’); ‘Aufbahrung im Marschallturm. Geziechnet am 8 August 1934’ (‘Lying in State in the Marschallturm. Drawn at 8 August 1934’); ‘Notitzen zur Aufabhrung’ (‘Notes about the Lying in State’); ‘Ankunft der Trauerzuges am Tannernberg-nationaldenkmal am Morgen des 7. August, 1934’ (‘The Arrival of the Procession at the Tannenberg-memorial in the morning of 7 August 1934’); ‘Trauerzug bei Fackellicht in der Nacht vom 6. zum 7 August 1934’ (‘The funeral procession in the night from 6 to 7 August 1934’); ‘In Erwartung des Trauerzuges am frühen Morgen des 7. August’ (‘Awaiting the funeral procession in the early morning of 7 August’); and ‘Der letzte der Vorbeiziehenden am Abend des 7. August’ (‘Last Visitor at the Evening of 7. August’).
In 1892 he created ‘1. Mose III’ (1. Moses III’), a huge triptych depicting ‘The Fall of Man’, selected for the World Exhibition in Chicago in 1893 and bought in 1894 by the Staatlichen Museen Schwerin (Grossherzogliche Museum Schwerin). The mid part of this Old Testament based triptych again depicts a funeral procession, including a men drawn carriage with coffin. Other works by Dettmann with the same theme: ‘Landarbeiterbegräbnis’ (‘Funeral of a Farm Worker’, 1892, in the possession of the Staatliches Museum Schwerin), ‘Fischerfriedhof’ (‘Graveyard of Fishers’, 1902, earlier in the possession of the Nationalgalerie Berlin), and ‘Friesische Frauen verlassen den Kirchhof’ (‘Frisian Women leaving Graveyard’, 1905, Königsberger Kunstsammlungen).

Former President Paul von Hindenburg lying in state in the Hindenburg Tower of the Tannenberg Memorial, 7 August 1934.

“….During the five days that passed between Hindenburg’s death and his funeral, it was nearly impossible for ordinary Germans to escape the constant coverage of events…On 6 August a parliamentary memorial service took place in Berlin, during which Hitler spoke and which was broadcast and played in all German factories, post offices, and other public places. After the ceremony Hitler demonstrated his new powers by taking the Reichswehr’s salute on the Reichstag’s steps. The actual funeral of 7 August was arranged on an even grander scale – and one  befitting the importance of the Hindenburg myth to Nazi rule. Hindenburg had wanted to be buried in Neudeck, but Hitler convinced the family that the grave inside the Tannenberg Memorial was more appropriate.
On 6 August, Hindenburg’s coffin was moved from his death room and transported to Hohenstein overnight, accompanied by a torchlight procession of SS and SA. Around 4,000 honorary guests were invited to follow the ceremony inside the Tannenberg Memorial -many of them members of the military, which lent the funeral the purpose of creating legitimacy for Hitler’s new role as commander-in-chief.
Hindenburg’s coffin, wrapped in the Reich war flag, was brought onto the central square of the memorial to the sounds of Beethoven’s ‘Eroica’, and the military chaplain Dohrmann gave the funeral speech. … His spirit would live on in the present generation and would assist in ‘building the Third Reich’, Dohrmann concluded. Hitler’s speech, which followed, sought to codify the Nazi adaptation of the Hindenburg myth once and for all. He exonerated the Field Marschal of all responsibilities for military failure in 1918; Germany had been defeated for ‘political reasons’ alone, Hitler explained, and Hindenburg’s election in 1925 had opened the door to Germany’s resurrection; his burial at Tannenberg now closed a circle -the Filed Marschal’s body was brought back to the place where his mythical roots lay….Hitler concluded:….and even when the last trace of his life has gone with the wind, the name will be immortal. Deceased Field Marschal, now enter Valhalla!

Ordinary Germans were not excluded entirely from participation in the funeral. Around 120.000 people gathered to the south of Tannenberg Memorial. Once the official part of the ceremony was over, they filed past Hindenburg’s coffin in one of the memorial’s towers. Up to 200.000 people seized the opportunity on 7 August alone.  The tower remained open for two weeks, and countless special trains carried a steady stream of visitors to nearby Hohenstein railway station and on the to memorial from there on special buses. The millions who could not make it to Hohenstein did not have to rely on newspapers and newsreels to gain a sense of the service’s atmosphere, but were given an opportunity to join in as the whole burial was broadcast on every German radio station. In Berlin, groups of silent listeners gathered in front of newsagents, pubs, and on public squares, where loudspeakers had been put up especially for the occasion. People’s mourning seemed genuine and, despite Nazi stage-management, there was a strong element of spontaneity and voluntary participation to the way people expressed their grief….(‘Hindenburg, Power, Myth, and the Rise of the Nazis’, Anna von der Goltz, 2009).

Hindenburg’s Funeral ceremony on video:
Hindenburg Last Journey to Tannenberg
Hindenburg’s Funeral ceremony

The torchlight procession arriving at the Tannenberg Memorial,  6 o’clock in the morning, 7 August 1934

– condition : II
– size : 60 x 45 cm (no frame)
– signed : right, below ‘Ludwig Dettmann 7/8 34’
– type : pastel/ chalk on paper

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BIOGRAPHY: LUDWIG DETTMANN

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Ewiger deutscher Soldat’ (‘Eternel German Soldier’). Size 8 meter high, including base. Presented by Dettmann in March 1942 in the Zeughaus, Berlin, and given to the state ‘als Kraftgabe zum Sieg’ and as ‘Plichtgeschenk an dieser grosse Zeit’.

In the early afternoon of 27 November 1934: Hitler visiting the exhibition ‘Kriegsbilder und Zeichnungen von Prof. Ludwig Dettmann’ in the Zeughaus, Berlin.

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Ehrenmal für die Gefallenen im Weltkriege der Universität Greifswald’. Memorial -consisting of three parts- to the fallen soldiers of the University of Greifswald’. Glass painting. Height 2,9 meter. Commissioned by Bernhard Rust, Gauleiter for Southern Hanover-Brunswick and Prussian Minister for Cultural Affairs (later Reichs Minister of Science, Education and National Culture). Created around 1932. With inscription: ‘Den gefallenen Helden der Ernst-Moritz-Ardt-Universität’ (‘To the Fallen Herois of the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University’). Presented in March 1934 in the Berliner Akademie der Künste. Also displayed in the Flensburger Kunstgewerbemuseum in 1935/36.
The glass painting was eventually not installed, but stored in October 1934 in a room of the University with antique plaster casts (Archäologische Studiensammlumg). The glass paintings are lost.
Photo left: Ludwig Dettmann standing in front of his work.
Photo right: the glass painting depicted in ‘Kunst und Volk’, 1937 (with the comment ‘not yet installed’).
   

Torchlight parade in front of Adolf Hitler (on the balcony of the Reich Chancellery) on Wilhelmsplatz in Berlin. Yearly held on 30 January, the anniversary of the Seizure of Power (Machtsergreifung) when Hitler had assumed the chancellorship in 1933. Date of parade unknown. Photo taken on 10 may 1941.

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Die Gruppe Steinmüller’ (‘The Group Steinmüller’). Depicted in ‘Krieg und Kunst’, Wilhelm Westecker, 1944.

Left: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Die Letzte Handgranate’ (‘The Last Hand Granade’). Depicted in ‘Nationalistische Monatshefte’, Heft 108, March 1939.
Right: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Deutsche Frontsoldaten’ (‘German Front Soldiers’). Depicted in ‘Das Bild’, 1934.
   

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Generalfeldmarschall von Hindenburg, General Ludendorff und Oberstleutnant Hoffmann bei der Arbeit im Hauptquartier in Lötzen’, 23 March 1915. Depicted are General Field Marschal Von Hindenburg, General Ludendorff and Lieutenant Colonel Hoffmann at the headquarter in Lötzen, now North-East Poland. Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938. Also printed on a postcards.

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Kommandierender Generale und Generalstabsoffiziere XI. U.-R.’ (‘Commanding Generals and General Staff-Officers’), 30 October 1914.  Location Poland. Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938.

Left: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Im Schutzengraben‘ (‘In the Trenches‘). Drawing, 1914-1915. Size 75 x 51 cm. In the possession of the Museumsberg Flensburg.
Right: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Infanterie im Angriff‘ (‘Infantery Attacking‘), November 1914, Poland. Drawing. Size 61 x 44 cm. In the possession of the Museumsberg Flensburg. Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938.
   

Left: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Kameradschaft’ (‘Comradeship’), November 1914, Poland. Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938.
Right: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Morgenrot, Morgenrot‘ (‘At Dawn‘). Drawing, 1915. Published in a German newspaper in 2014.
 

Fighting in the Błędów Desert in Poland, 2 October 1914
Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Durch polnischen Sand’ (‘Through Polish Sand’), 2 October 1914. Assumably the Błędów Desert is depicted, an area of sands between Bledów and the villages of Chechło and Klucze in Poland. The area lies mainly on the Silesian Highlands in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. The Błędów Desert is Central Europe’s largest accumulation of loose sand in an area away from any sea.
In the possession of the Nationalgalerie Berlin. Displayed at the:
‘Deutsche Kunstausstellung im Glaspalast 1930’, room 51;
–  ‘Grosse Berliner Kunst Ausstellung 1934’;
– 
‘Frühjahrs-Ausstellung 1937’ of the Preussische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin;
– ‘Dresdner Kunstausstellung’, 1935 (‘Sonderschau: Kriegsbilder’);
– ‘Heroische Kunst’ exhibition of the NS-Kulturgemeinde, Städtischen Galerie, Lenbach-Haus, Munich, June 1936.
Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938; in ‘Krieg und Kunst’, Wilhelm Westecker, 1944; in ‘Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte’, Heft 92, 1937; and in ‘Westermanns Monatshefte’, 79 Jahrgang, Band I, 1934.

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Kamerad, lebst du noch?’ (‘Comrade, are you still living?’). Displayed at the ‘Dresdner Kunstausstellung’, 1935 (‘Sonderschau: Kriegsbilder’).

Left: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Artillerie fährt durch polnisches Dorf’ (‘Artillery driving through Polish Village’), 3 December 1914, Poland. Size 63 x 50 cm. In the possession of the Nationalgalerie Berlin. Displayed at the exhibition ‘Deutsche Kunstausstellung im Glaspalast 1930’, room 51; at the exhibition ‘Heroische Kunst’, NS-Kulturgemeinde, Städtischen Galerie, Lenbach-Haus, Munich, June 1936; and at the ‘Frühjahrs-Ausstellung 1937’ of the Preussische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin.
Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938; in ‘Krieg und Kunst’, Wilhelm Westecker, 1944; and in ‘Ludwig Dettmann 1865 – 1944, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’, Monika Potztal, 2008.
Right: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Über genommenen Graben’ (‘Charging over Conquered Trenches’), August 1915, Poland. Size 63 x 50. Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938; and in ‘Ludwig Dettmann 1865 – 1944, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’, Monika Potztal, 2008.
   

Left: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Die leidenden Pferde’ (‘Suffering Horses’). Displayed at the exhibition ‘Deutsche Kunstausstellung im Glaspalast 1930’, room 5; at the ‘Frühjahrs-Ausstellung 1937’ of the Preussische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin, and at the ‘Dresdner Kunstausstellung’, 1935 (‘Sonderschau: Kriegsbilder’). Depicted in ‘Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte’, Heft 92, 1937, and under the name ‘Der Sterbende Schimmel’ (‘Dying Horse’) in ‘Die Völkische Kunst’, 1935.
Right: Ludwig Detmann, ‘Soldat trägt seinen verwindeten Leutnant aus der Feuerlinie’ (‘Soldier pulls his wounded Lieutenant out of the fire zone’). Displayed at the ‘Frühjahrs-Ausstellung 1937’ of the Preussische Akademie der Künste zu Berlin, and at the ‘Dresdner Kunstausstellung’, 1935 (‘Sonderschau: Kriegsbilder’). Depicted in ‘Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte’, Heft 92, 1937.
   

Left:Ludwig Dettmann, ‘General von Köves, sein engerer Stab und der deutsche Verbindungsoffizier’ (‘General von Köves, his staff and the German Liaison Officer’), May 1915, Poland.
Hermann Albin Josef Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza (1854 – 1924) was the Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian Army. He served as a very competent commander and was one of the most popular army leaders of the old monarchy. Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938.
Right: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Nach 60 km Tagesmarsch ins Gefecht’ (‘Entering the battle, after a day’s march of 60 kilometer’), 18 November 1914, Julianow, Poland. Depicted in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938, and in ‘Die Völkische Kunst’, 1935.
   

Left: Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Kriegsfreiwillige, Ansprache in der Schlosskirche zu Köningsberg in Preussen’ (‘War Volunteers, Speech in the Schlosskirche of Königsberg in Prussia’). Displayed at the exhibition ‘Kriegsbilder Ausstelliung’, Königliche Akademie der Künste zu Berlin, Februar – April 1916. Depicted in the exhibition catalog, and again in ‘Ostfront, ein Denkmal des deutschen Kampfes in Bildern und Tagebuchblättern’, 1938’. Again displayed at the exhibition ‘Deutsche Kunstausstellung im Glaspalast 1930’, room 51
Right: ‘Ludwig Dettmann, Russische Bäuerin über ein Schlachtfeld gehend’ (‘Russian female farmer walking on a battlefield’). Displayed at the exhibition ‘Kriegsbilder Ausstelliung’, Königliche Akademie der Künste zu Berlin, Februar – April 1916. Depicted in the exhibition catalog.
   

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Zeichnet Kriegsanleihe’. Call to buy World War I bonds. Size 140 x 95 cm. Copies in the possession of the Deutsches Historisches Museum and the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg.

Ludwig Dettmann also painted the lying in state of Kaiser Wilhelm I in 1888.
And again in 1888 (the Year of the Three Emperors) Dettmann painted the lying in state of Kaiser Friedrich III, the successor of Wilhelm I. The works are described in the Vossische Zeitung, 12 July 1888, and in ‘Ludwig Dettmann, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’, Monika Potztal, 2008. Both monumental paintings created in the same style (with torches, soldiers painted from the back, and numerous wreaths) are lost.
In 1897 Dettmann also portrayed the lying in state of Heinrich von Stephan (1831 – 1897), the legendary Minister of Postal Services of the German Empire, founder of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, and the one who introduced in 1877 the telephone to Germany. This painting (photo below) still exists, and is in the possession of the ‘Stiftung Museum für Post und Kommunikation’ in Frankfurt. Size 90 x 69 cm.

Wall-paintings in the Entrance Hall of the Townhall in Kiel, 1913
Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Hochbau‘ (‘Building‘).

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Tiefbau’ (‘Civil Engineering‘).

The Wall paintings in the City Hall of Altona (Hamburg), 1899/1900
Four monumental wall paintings in the Meeting Room of the Tow Hall of Altona. Size of each individual painting: 3,26 height x 4,62 meter width. Created in 1899/1900. The old Prussian city of Altona, known for its openness to religious refugees, was integrated in the city of Hamburg in 1938. Paintings restored in 2011. Depicted an described in ‘Ludwig Dettmanns Gemälde im Altoner Rathaus’, Dagmar Jestrzemski, 2011.
For these public commissioned works the designs of Max Liebermann, and 24 others artist including Arthur Kampf, were rejected.
The four works were displayed at the Grosse Berliner Kunst Ausstellung 1900; two of them were depicted in the exhibition catalog.

Meeting Room of the Town Hall of Altona in 1900.
 

Left: ‘Die Ankunft der vertriebenen Niederländsichen Glaubensflüchtlinge im 16. Jahrhundert‘. Depicted is the arrival in Altona of a group of Dutch religious refugees at the end of the 16th Century.
Right: ‘Der Schwedenbrand 1713‘. Depicted is the burning city of Altona at 8 January 1713. The Swedish General Magnus Stenbock beated the Danes on 20 December 1712 and led the Swedish army to Holstein, were the city of Altona (at that time Danish teritory) was plundered and burned. Inhabitants of Altona fled by boats or went on the Hamburger-mountain.
   

Left: ‘Die Aufnahme der vertriebenen Hamburger in Altona, 1813‘. Depicted is the city of Hamburg, occupied by the French since 1806. On Christmass Eve 1813 French General Davout expelled 30.000 civilians -one fouth of the inhabitants- from the city of Hamburg to save on food. 20.000 civilans found shelter in Altona, a city with 25.000 inhabitants at that time.
Right: ‘Der Einzug der Bundestruppen am 24. 12.1863 in Altona‘. Depicted are the Saxon troops entering Altona at 24 December 1863; shown is the end of the Danish Reign in Schleswig-Holstein.
   

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Die Arbeit’ (‘Labour‘), 1893/94. Triptych. Displayed at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung 1894, where Dettmann was awarded a Golden Medal. In the possession of the Von Der Heydt-Museum, Wuppertal.
Left part: 143 x 68 cm.
Middle part: 168 x 181 cm.
Right part: 144 x 68 cm.

‘Die Arbeit’, displayed at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung 1894; depicted in the exhibition catalog.

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Heimfahrt vom Kirchdorf’ (‘Returning from Kirchdorf’). Displayed at the ‘Internationale Kunstausstellung Berlin’, 1896. Size 191 x 288 cm. In the possession of the Städtische Museum Braunschweig.
Left: ‘Heimfahrt vom Kirchdorf’, depicted in the 1896-exhibition catalog.
Right: ‘Heimfahrt vom Kirchdorf’, in the possession of the Städtische Museum Braunschweig. Depicted in ‘Ludwig Dettmann, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’, by Monika Potztal, 2008.
 

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Morgen ist Feiertag‘ (‘Tomorrow is a Holiday‘), created in 1900. Size 144 x 191 cm. In the possession of the Kunsthalle, Kiel.

Ludwig Dettmann,  three monumental paintings, each app. 11 x 4,5 meters, for the facade of the Kunstakademie Königsberg, created in 1913. Total length 32 meter.
a) ‘Erhebung des Volkes’ (‘The Uprising of the People’);
b) ‘General Yorck in seiner Ansprache an die ostpreußischen Stände am 5. Februar zu Königsberg’ (‘General Yorck von Wartenburg addressing the East Prussian Estates on 5 February 1813’). Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (1759 – 1830) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall instrumental in the switching of the Kingdom of Prussia from the French alliance to the Russian alliance during the War of the Sixth Coalition. Ludwig van Beethoven’s ‘Yorckscher Marsch’ is named in his honor.
c. ‘Kampf der Landwehr gegen französische Garde’ (‘German Landwehr fighting against the French’).

Left: the three paintings depicted in ‘Die Kunst für Alle’, 1912/13.
Right: postcard of ‘Erhebung des Volkes’. A large print with a format of 74 x 150 cm is in the possession of the Dreiländermuseum in Lörrach. Also depicted in ‘Die Völkische Kunst’, 1935.
 

Below: ‘Kampf der Landwehr gegen französische Garde’ (‘German Landwehr fighting against the French’). Size 74 x 150 cm. In the possession of the Dreiländermuseum in Lörrach ( print).

The Battle of Düppel, Triptych by Ludwig Dettmann
‘Nicht die Genialität eines Generals wie im Fall Moltkes bei Sedan war das Entscheidene, sonder die persönliche altgermanische Tapferkeit eines jeden Einzelnen, der verwegen durch den dichten Kugelregen über Drahthindernis und Palisaden auf den Gegner eindrang’
The Battle of Düppel was the key battle of the Second Schleswig War, fought between Denmark and Prussia. The battle was fought on the morning of 18 April 1864, following a siege that began on 7 April. Denmark suffered a severe defeat which ultimately decided the outcome of the war.
Size of the triptych: 2,5 x 9,7 meter. Displayed on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Düppel at an exhibition in Sonderburg, June – August 1914. Depicted in ‘Ludwig Dettmann, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’, by Monika Potztal, 2008.

Left part: ‘Treueschwur der Jugend, -Op ewig ungedeelt’. Size 2,56 x 2,00 meter. Depicted are young men swearing loyalty. At the background the blue-white-red colours of Schleswig-Holstein. The Treaty of Ribe (Vertrag von Ripen) was a proclamation at Ribe made in 1460 by King Christian I of Denmark to a number of Holsatian nobles enabling himself to become Count of Holstein and regain control of Denmark’s lost Duchy of Schleswig. The most famous line of the proclamation was that the Danish Duchy of Schleswig and the County of Holstein within the Holy Roman Empire, should now be, in the original Middle Low German language, Up Ewig Ungedeelt, or ‘Forever Undivided’. This was to assume great importance as the slogan of German nationalists in the struggles of the 19th century, under completely different circumstances.
Right part:  ‘Gefallenenehrung dänischer und deutscher Soldaten’ (‘The Honouring of 207 Danish and German Soldiers’). Size 2,56 x 2,00 meter. At the background the blue-white-red colours of Schleswig-Holstein.   
Middle part: ‘Sturm auf die Düppeler Schanzen’ (‘Battle of Düppel’). Size 2,56 x 5,71 meter.

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘1. Mose III’ (1. Moses III’), created in 1892. Bought in 1894 by the Staatlichen Museen Schwerin (Grossherzogliche Museum Schwerin). Selected for the World Exhibition in Chicago, 1893.
The triptych is based on the Old Testament: ‘der Sündenfall’ (‘Fall of Man’) and ‘die Verurteiling Adams und Evas zu Arbeit und Sterblichkeit’ (‘Expulsion from the Garden of Eden; God cursed Adam and Eve to a lifetime of hard labour followed by death’). Depicted in ‘Ludwig Dettmann, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’, Monika Potztal, 2008.
Left part: ‘De Sündenfall’. Size 185 x 110 cm.
Middle: ‘die Verurteiling Adams und Evas zu Arbeit und Sterblichkeit’. Size 185 x 270 cm.
Right  part: ‘Christus, der im Himmel die Mühseligen und Beladenen zu sich nimmt’ (‘Coming to Jesus’). Size 185 x 110 cm.

Ludwig Dettmann, three monumental wall paintings for the auditorium of the Technische Hochschule in Danzig, created 1904-1909. Destroyed in WW II. Depicted themes were shipbulding/ marine engineering and water-engineering. The works were named: ‘Feuer und Eisen’ (‘Fire and Iron’), ‘Schiffsbau aus Danzigs Blütezeit, -die Alte Klawittersche Werft’ (‘Schipbuilding in Danzigs High Days, -the Old Klawitterische Dockyard’), and the wall painting in the front of the aula ‘die Besichtigung der Arbeiten beim Bau des Nord Ostsee-Kanals (Grünentaler Brücke) durch Eure kaiserliche un königliche Majestät’ (‘Inspection of the Building of the North-Ostsee Canal by your imperial and royal Highness’).

Was Ludwig Dettmann the most represented German painter ever at the Biennale di Venezia?
During almost 40 years Dettmann participated 10 times at the Biennale di Venezia, with in total 47 works.
http://asac.labiennale.org/it/passpres/artivisive/annali.php?m=213&c=a

– II Biennale di Venezia 1897 with ‘Notte Santa’ and ‘Sera di Festa’;
– III Biennale di Venezia 1899 with ‘In Chiesa’, ‘Nel Parco Dell’Orfanotrofio’, ‘Notte Sulla Riviera’, ‘Presso Riva’;
– IV Biennale di Venezia 1901 with ‘Coppia di Amanti’, ‘Notte di Maggio’, ‘Nozze di Pescatori’ and ‘Seminatore’;
– V Biennale di Venezia 1903 with ‘Colpo di Vento’, ‘L’Aratore’, ‘Ragazze Dell’Isola di Fohr’;
– VI Biennale di Venezia 1905 with ‘Canzaone Della Frigia’;
– VII Biennale di Venezia 1907 with ‘Colazione Campestre’ and ‘La Buona Novella’;
– X Biennale di Venezia 1912 with 22 ( !!) works ;
– XI Biennale di Venezia 1914 with ‘ Sera nel Parco’;
– XV Biennale di Venezia 1926 with ‘Paesaggio in Fiore’;
– XX Biennale di Venezia 1936 with 7 works.

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Notte sulla Riviera, -Rio Maggiore’ (‘Night at the Riviera, -city of Riomaggiore’). Displayed in 1899 at the III Biennale di Venezia.
Official photo from the Biennale di Venezia:
http://asac.labiennale.org/it/documenti/fototeca/ava-ricerca.php?scheda=78565&p=6

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘In Chiesa’ (‘In the Church). Displayed in 1899 at the III Biennale di Venezia.
Official photo from the Biennale di Venezia:
http://asac.labiennale.org/it/documenti/fototeca/ava-ricerca.php?scheda=78566&p=5

Ludwig Dettmann, ‘Marchierende S.A., Wandbild im Horst-Wessel-Haus, Berlin, Horst-Wessel-Platz’. State commissioned wall painting ‘Marching SA’ for the Horst-Wessel-Haus in Berlin, Horst-Wessel-Platz, 1935. Size of the painting in fresco style: 2 meter high. Depicted in ‘Kunst und Volk’, 1937.

Ludwig Dettmann portrayed in SA-uniform in front of a model of the ‘Marchierende S.A.’.

Ludwig Dettmann, higly decorated war painter in two World Wars
Ludwig Dettmann (1865 – 1944), son of a custom officer, was a German impressionist/ realist painter. From 1882 – 1884 he went to the Arts and Craft School in Hamburg, then from 1884 – 1889 he studied at the Berlin Art Academy under Eugen Bracht, Woldemar Friedrich and Franz Skarbina. In his last year at the Academy, Dettmann made study trips to Holland, Paris and London. After 1891, he was a teacher at the drawing and painting school of the ‘Association of Berlin Woman Artists’.  In 1886 he took for the first time part at a prominent exhibition: the Spring Exhibition of the Berlin Academy.

Dettmann’s Funeral and Laying in State depictions
In 1888 Ludwig Dettmann painted ‘Vor dem Kaiserlichen Palais am Morgen des 9. März’, a depiction of people gathering together in front of the Royal Palace in Berlin, after the news of the death of Wilhelm I. Shortly later Dettmann depicted -together with Martin Rehder- the lying in state of Kaiser Wilhelm I. In a third work he depicted the midnight torchlight procession, bringing the body of Wilhelm I from the Alten Palast to the Dom. Again in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors, Dettmann painted the lying in state of Kaiser Friedrich III, the successor of Wilhelm I (the works are described in the Vossische Zeitung, 12 July 1888, and in ‘Ludwig Dettmann, zwischen Avantgarde und Anpassung’ by Monika Potztal, 2008). In 1897 Dettmann also portrayed the lying in state of Heinrich von Stephan (1831 – 1897), the legendary Minister of Postal Services of the German Empire, founder of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, and the one who introduced in 1877 the telephone to Germany (in the possession of the ‘Stiftung Museum für Post und Kommunikation’ in Frankfurt).
At the Grosse Berliner Kunst Ausstellung 1934 Dettmann displayed 18 paintings of which 7 works were dealing with the funeral and funeral procession of Paul von Hindenburg:
‘Das Volk zieht, seinen toten Feldherrn grüssend, am Marchallturm vorbei, 7 August 1934’ (‘People passing the Marschallturm salute their dead Field Marschal, 7 August 1934’); ‘Aufbahrung im Marschallturm. Gezeichnet am 8 August 1934’ (‘Lying in State in the Marschallturm. Drawn at 8 August 1934’); ‘Notitzen zur Aufbahrung’ (‘Notes about the Lying in State’); ‘Ankunft der Trauerzuges am Tannernberg-nationaldenkmal am Morgen des 7. August, 1934’ (‘The Arrival of the Procession at the Tannenberg-memorial in the morning of 7 August 1934’); ‘Trauerzug bei Fackellicht in der Nacht vom 6. zum 7 August 1934’ (‘The funeral torchlight procession in the night from 6 to 7 August 1934’); ‘In Erwartung des Trauerzuges am frühen Morgen des 7. August’ (‘Awaiting the funeral procession in the early morning of 7 August’); and ‘Der letzte der Vorbeiziehenden am Abend des 7. August’ (‘Last Visitor at the Evening of 7. August’).
In 1892 Dettmann created ‘1. Mose III’ (1. Moses III’), a huge triptych depicting ‘The Fall of Man’, selected for the World Exhibition in Chicago in 1893 and bought in 1894 by the Staatlichen Museen Schwerin (Grossherzogliche Museum Schwerin). The mid part of this Old Testament based triptych again depicts a funeral procession, including a men drawn carriage with coffin. Other works by Dettmann with the same theme: Landarbeiterbegräbnis’ (‘Funeral of a Farm Worker’, 1892, in the possession of the Staatliches Museum Schwerin), ‘Fischerfriedhof’ (‘Graveyard of Fishers’, 1902, earlier in the possession of the Nationalgalerie Berlin), and ‘Friesische Frauen verlassen den Kirchhof’ (‘Frisian Women leaving Graveyard’, 1905, Königsberger Kunstsammlungen).

From 1890 on, Dettmann devoted himself to mural painting with mostly historical objects. He created frescoes and monumental wall paintings for the Town Hall in Altona (still existing), The Town Hall in Kiel (still existing), the Danzig Technical College (destroyed in WW II) and the Königsberg Academy (destroyed in WW II).
In 1893 he was awarded the Golden Medal of the ‘Internationale Kunstaustellung’ in Dresden, In 1893/94 he created the triptych ‘Die Arbeit’ (‘Labour‘); the work was displayed at the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung 1894 and awarded the Gold Medal (in the possession of the Von Der Heydt-Museum, Wuppertal). In 1909 Dettmann won again a Golden Medal at the Great Berlin Exhibition.
In 1895 he was appointed professor at the Berlin Academy. Three year later he was one of the founders of the Berlin Secession and became, together with Max Liebermann, Walter Leistikow, Otto Heinrich Engel, Oskar Frenzel, Curt Herrmann and Fritz Klimsch member of the board.
In 1897 Dettmann took for the first time part in de Biennale di Venezia. Many other exhibitions in Venezia would follow:

Was Ludwig Dettmann the most represented German painter ever at the Biennale di Venezia?
During almost 40 years Dettmann participated 10 times at the Biennale di Venezia, with in total 47 works.
http://asac.labiennale.org/it/passpres/artivisive/annali.php?m=213&c=a

– II Biennale di Venezia 1897 with ‘Notte Santa’ and ‘Sera di Festa’;
– III Biennale di Venezia 1899 with ‘In Chiesa’, ‘Nel Parco Dell’Orfanotrofio’, ‘Notte Sulla Riviera’, ‘Presso Riva’;
– IV Biennale di Venezia 1901 with ‘Coppia di Amanti’, ‘Notte di Maggio’, ‘Nozze di Pescatori’ and ‘Seminatore’;
– V Biennale di Venezia 1903 with ‘Colpo di Vento’, ‘L’Aratore’, ‘Ragazze Dell’Isola di Fohr’;
– VI Biennale di Venezia 1905 with ‘Canzaone Della Frigia’;
– VII Biennale di Venezia 1907 with ‘Colazione Campestre’ and ‘La Buona Novella’;
– X Biennale di Venezia 1912 with 22 ( !!) works ;
– XI Biennale di Venezia 1914 with ‘ Sera nel Parco’;
– XV Biennale di Venezia 1926 with ‘Paesaggio in Fiore’;
– XX Biennale di Venezia 1936 with 7 works.

In 1900, Dettmann was appointed Director of the Kunstakademie Königsberg, where he received a PhD degree in 1909. He became honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts in Milan, from 1912 member of the Prussian Academy of Fine Arts, and also member of the Dresdner Academy.
From 1914 to 1918 Dettmann served as war painter attached to the General Staff, at the East and at the Westfront. In spring 1916 he organized the ‘Kriegsbilder Austellung’, composed of heroic war and battle scenes. The exhibition where Dettmann displayed no less than 117 works, was shown at the Berlin Academy and at the Königsberger Art Association the following year. He contributed i.a. portraits of Generals Erich Ludendorff and Paul von Hindenburg. In 1917 he became member of the Verein Berliner Künstler, later chairman.
After the war, he resigned his directorship of the Königsberg Academy and settled down in Berlin. In 1920 he was commissioned by the Prussian Minister of Culture to create the ‘Ehrenmal für die Gefallenen im Weltkriege der Universität Greifswald’, a WW I memorial consisting of three parts to the fallen soldiers of the University of Greifswald. The glass painting memorial of 2,9 meter height was displayed at an exhibition organized by the Preussische Akademie der Künste, and later in 1935/36 again in the Flensburger Kunstgewerbemuseum.
In 1923, he illustrated both volumes of Weltbrand – Deutschlands Tragödie 1914–1918 (‘Conflagration, Germany’s Tragedy’), a detailed examination of the war and its aftermatch by the novelist Walter Bloem, an ardent nationalist. In October 1928 he was invited on the first transatlantic flight of the airship Graf Zeppelin, where he made an artistic record of the voyage.
Also in 1928 he became member of the organization Der Stahlhelm – Bund der Frontsoldaten, and after Hitler seized power he joined in May 1933 the NSDAP. In January 1934 he assigned to the SA, with the rank of Truppenführer from 1938. He served on the board of the ‘Reichsverband Bildener Künstler Deutschlands’ (Reich Association of Visual Artists), and became member of the NS-Volkswohlfahrt. After 1934 Dettmann received the ‘Blood Order’ (‘Blutorden’), the Decoration in Memory of the Munich Putsch of 9 November 1923, one of the most prestigious decorations in the Nazi Party. Dettmann was bestowed the Blood Order likely at the discretion of Hitler, as he had not been one of the 1500 participants in the putsch of 1923. In 1935 Dettmann was awarded the prestigious Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft.

The ‘Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft’
The ‘Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft’ (Goethe Medal for Art and Science) was authorized by Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg to commemorate the centenary of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s death on March 22, 1932. The Medal was in Hindenburg’s name given to Goethe scholars, artists, scientists, government officials and politicians. Among the recipients of the Medal were Chancellor Brüning, Max Planck, and the Nobel Prize winners Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Nicholas Murray Butler, André Gide, Knut Hamsun, Verner von Heidenstam, Guglielmo Marconi, Albert Schweitzer, Fritz Haber and Richard Willstätter. Other recipients were Benito Mussolini, José Ortega y Gasset, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Otto Klemperer, Carl Goerdeler, Paul Ernst, Hans Grimm and E.G. Kolbenheyer. About one quarter of the honorees of the Goethe Medal before July 1934 were non-Germans. Women were rarely considered.

Beginning in November 1934, Adolf Hitler, in his position as German Head of State, took over the awarding of the ‘Goethe-Medaille für Kunst und Wissenschaft’. Among the distinguished individuals were Nobel Prize winners Hans von Euler-Chelpin, Johannes Stark, Heinrich Wieland and Adolf Windaus, as well as five women: Anna Bahr-Mildenburg, Hedwig Bleibtreu, Agnes Bluhm, Isolde Kurz, and Lulu von Strauß und Torney. Under Hitler the Medal was generally awarded only on high birthdays or other important anniversaries. Many of the recipients were followers of National Socialism.

Hundreds of works by Dettmann’s displayed in Berlin, Dresden and Munich
In 1930 Dettmann displayed 96 works at the exhibition ‘Deutsche Kunstausstellung im Glaspalast 1930’, room 51. In 1934 the exhibition ‘Kriegsbilder und Zeichnungen von Prof. Ludwig Dettmann’ took place in the Zeughaus, Berlin. In the early afternoon of 27 November 1934, Hitler visited the exhibition, -photos by Heinrich Hoffmann with Hitler watching the works by Dettmann still exists. At the Grosse Berliner Kunst Ausstellung 1934 Dettmann displayed 18 paintings and drawings: 11 depicting WW I scenes and 7 works showed the funeral and funeral procession of Paul von Hindenburg. In 1935 70 works by Dettmann were displayed at the Dresdner Kunstausstellung, -Sonderschau Kriegsbilder; the exhibition catalog described them as ‘70 of the 340 paintings and drawings from a war collection’. In the same year Dettmann was commissioned by the state a wall painting of two meter high -‘Marschierende SA’ (‘Marching SA’)- for the Horst-Wessel-Haus in Berlin.

In Juni 1936 he was represented with four works at the exhibition ‘Heroische Kunst’, NS-Kulturgemeinde, Städtischen Galerie, Lenbach-Haus, Munich. In 1938 he took part in the exhibition ‘Deutscher Bauer – Deutsches Land’, an exhibition ‘unter der Schirmherrschaft von Reichsbauernführer Reichsminister R. Walther Darré und Reichsleiter Alfred Rosenberg’. Also in 1938 he wrote ‘Ostfront. Ein Denkmal des Deutschen Kampfes’ (‘Eastern Front, a Monument to the German Struggle’).
On his 75th birthday in 1940, he received a congratulations-telegram from Hitler and Field Marschall Keitel. In March 1942 Dettmann presented in the Zeughaus in Berlin the monumental painting ‘Ewiger deutscher Soldat’ (‘Eternel German Soldier’). He gave the work of 8 meter high to the state ‘als Kraftgabe zum Sieg’ and as ‘Plichtgeschenk an dieser grosse Zeit’. Shortly before his death in 1944, his name was added to the Gottbegnadeten list of artists crucial to Nazi culture.
Ludwigg Dettmann died in 1944 in Berlin.
Later in 1944 he was postuum awarded the Uwe Jens Lornsen Medal, the highest distinction of the federal state Schleswig-Holstein.
In 1946 Dettmanns book ‘Ostfront. Ein Denkmal des Deutsches Kampfes’ was placed on the ‘Liste der auszusondernden Literatur’, a list of Nazi works that were forbidden in the Soviet occupation zone. A commemorative exhibition in September-October 1949 was staged by the Public Museum of Flensburg.