‘Deutsche Erde’ (‘German Soil’ or ‘Terra Tedesca’)
A photo of this specific, individual period print is published at page 26 of the ‘Anselm Kiefer’ art catalogue 2014 of the ‘Royal Academy of Arts’, Londen.
Bought from the hiers of Werner Peiner.
Original large period print of Werner Peiners ‘Deutsch Erde’, created in the 1930s.
Text right under: ‘copyright by franz hanfstaengl münchen printed in Germany’
Text left under: ‘werner peiner 1897 deutsche erde’.
In the middle is printed the number: 13369
With the watermark (left under) of the Hanfstaengl printing company (1833-1980).
Photo of this specific period print in the catalogue of the Royal Academy of Arts, 2014, page 26. See also ‘Photographic Acknowledgements’ at page 234.
|– condition||: II|
|– size||: unframed 100 x 65 cm|
|– signed||: right, under (‘W. Peiner 3.1933.’)|
|– type||: original period print, bought from the heirs of Werner Peiner|
|– misc. I||: with watermark of Hangfstaengl printing company|
|– misc. II||: photo of this specific print in catalogue Royal Academy of Arts, page 6 and 234|
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BIOGRAPHY: WERNER PEINER
‘The best tapestries produced in France in the last 100 years’
Detail of the gobelin ‘Globe Terrestre’ (‘Erdkugel’) by Werner Peiner. Displayed in 2018 at the exhibition ‘Au fil du siècle, 1918-2018 – Chefs d’oeuvre de la tapisserie’, organized by the museum Galerie des Gobelins in Paris. The exhibition shows ‘the best tapestries produced in France in the last 100 years’. All the displayed tapestries are in the possession of the French state. Planned size 10 x 7 meters.
The gobelin was commissioned by the Nazi’s, paid by the Nazi’s (including the gold) and designed by a Nazi-painter.
‘Chariot with Bulls’ (‘Char de Taureax’) by Werner Peiner. Displayed in 2018 at the exhibition ‘Au fil du siècle, 1918-2018 – Chefs d’oeuvre de la tapisserie’, organized by the museum Galerie des Gobelins in Paris. The tapestry ‘Char de Taureax’ -containing 3.5 kilograms of gold- was confiscated by the French Republic in 1945/49.
This gobelin with a huge swastika was commissioned by the Nazi’s, paid by the Nazi’s (including the gold) and designed by a Nazi-painter: a real French Masterpiece of the 20th century.
‘…..designs created by the most prestigious artists of the 20th and 21st centuries…’
Left: the signature of Werner Peiner; on top of that the coat of arms of Hermann Göring, which was also the logo of the Hermann Göring Meisterschule für Malerei in Kronenburg, Eifel.
Right: the logo of Manufacture des Gobelin National (one of their logo’s).
The Shell House, built in 1931 in Hamburg
Mosaic works designed by Werner Peiner in the hall of the Shell House in Hamburg. Depicted in ‘Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration‘, 1931, and in ‘Deutsches Mosaik’ by Josef Ludwig Fischer, 1939.
Left: Werner Peiner, postcard*, ‘Deutsche Erde’ (‘German Soil’ or ‘Terra tedesca’), 1933. GDK 1938, room 3. The painting was also displayed at the XIX Venice Biennale, 1934, and at the ‘1938 Berliner Ausstellung in der Preussischen Akademie der Künste’.
On the horizon we can still see the Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom). This strong propaganda work depicts a farmer who believes in the future of Germany -and its uprising- and who, in spite of the threatening thunder, keeps on ploughing (it is said that this was the explanation from the artist himself). In 1933 ‘Deutsche Erde’ was given to the Honorary Citizen Adolf Hitler by the City of Mechernich. Hitler, who was very enthusiastic about this painting by Peiner, ordered that it be hung in the New Chancellery. The painting has been lost.
Right: Werner Peiner, postcard, ‘Frühling’ (‘Spring’), created in 1933. GDK 1938, room 3.
Left: Werner Peiner, postcard, ‘Grosse Herbstlandschaft’ (‘Large autumn Landscape’). Created 1931. GDK 1939, room 3.
Right: Werner Peiner, postcard, ‘Steppenmorgen’ (‘Morning in the african savannah’). Created in 1935. GDK 1938, room 3. Bought by Hermann Göring.
Werner Peiner. ‘Die Schacht im Teutoburger Walde’.** GDK 1942, room 2; depicted in the exhibition catalogue.
Werner Peiner, artprint, ‘Sommer’. Depicted in Westermann Monatshefte, 1935.
Left: Hitler and Göring looking at ‘Grosse Winterlandschaft’ at the exhibition ‘Werner Peiner und Paraskewe Bereskine’, Academy of Art in Berlin, March 4 ,1938 (‘Ausstellung in der Preussische Akademie der Künste in Berlin’). Photo: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
Right: Werner Peiner, ‘Grosse Winterlandschaft’, created 1931. GDK 1937, room 18.
Werner Peiner, ‘L’Aratore’ (‘Plowman’, or ‘Feldarbeit’). Displayed at the exhibition ‘Esposizione d’Arte Duesseldorf’, Florance, 1943; depicted in the exhibition catalogue. Also displayed in 1938 at the exhibition ‘Deutscher Bauern – Deutsches Land’ in Berlin (‘Ausstellung unter der Schirmherrschaft von Reichsbauernführer Reichsminister R. Walther Darré und Reichsleiter Alfred Rosenberg’); depicted in the exhibition catalog (‘Leigabe Kunstsammlungen der Stadt Düsseldorf’). Also depicted in ‘Die Völkische Kunst’, February 1935; in ‘Die neue deutsche Malerei’, Deutscher Verlag’, 1941; and in ‘Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte’, 1938, nr. 95.
Werner Peiner, ‘Eggender Bauer’ (‘Plowing farmers’). Depicted in ‘Die Völkische Kunst’, February 1935.
Left: Werner Peiner, ‘Mädchenakt‘ (‘Girl-nude‘). Created in 1931. GDK 1938 room 3. Size 71 x 51cm. Sold in 2015 by a German auction house.
Right: Werner Peiner, ‘Die Badende‘ (´Bathing´). Created 1931, GDK 1938 room 3.Displayed at the ‘Ausstellung unter der Schirmherrschaft des Ministerpräsidenten Generaloberst Göring in der Pr. Akademie der Kunste‘, Berlin 1938.
Werner Peiner, ‘Das schwarze Paradies’ (‘Black Paradise’), GDK 1938, room 3. This tryptichon was bought by Adolf Hitler and hung in the New Chancelery. The painting is lost since WWII. **
Hermann and Emmy Goering looking at Peiners tryptich, depicted in ‘Die Dame’, June, 1938.
Left: Werner Peiner, ‘Stuhl mit Flasche‘ (‘Chair with Bottle‘). Created in 1928. Size 62 x 50 cm. Sold by a German auction house in 2011.
Right: Werner Peiner, ‘Die Verdammten, -Adam und Eva’ (‘The Condemned, -Adam and Eve’). Created 1922, size 80 x 60 cm. At the backside two stickers from ‘Kunstsalon Herm. Abels in Köln’ and ‘Galerie Utermann in Dortmund, 1973’. Sold by a German auction house in 2018.
Werner Peiner, Tapestry in a lounge in Hamburg. Name unknown. Depicted in the magazine ‘Die Dame’, August 1932.
Blood and Soil
Blood and Soil (‘Blut und Boden’) emphasised the relationship between true Aryans and a rural life. Hitler believed that true Germans ‘came from the soil’, that they had a family background based on farming and life in the countryside. He wanted all Germans to identify themselves with the glorious history of their descendants who worked the land. The blood and soil ideology honoured strong peasant farmers and other rural workers above people who worked in cities. There was an element of romanticism associated with this ideology as it failed to take into account the importance of industry in the rise of Imperial Germany in the late 19th and early 20th century. However, Hitler associated industry with socialism, communism and trade unions – even if he was to court the support (and money) of the industrialists in later years. Blood and soil ideology often went hand in hand with extreme nationalism and racism. Nazis advocated the idea of a ‘master race’ to free people from illness and make them full of virtue and good thoughts. The decline of rural communities was blamed on the Jews; schools taught that the countryside had been bought up by Jewish families who turned rural families off the land, forcing them to go to the cities to find work. Blut und Boden was also used to rationalise ‘lebensraum’ as the Nazi leaders believed that those who lived in Eastern Europe and western USSR had no idea on how to work the land properly and only true Aryans would know how to do this and make the area a ‘bread basket’. Blood and Soil painters depicted peaceful country life and uncomplicated, decent people who were clean and earthy. Left out was any sign of the increased mechanisation of agriculture. The famer was mostly depicted in a primitive, earthbound state, sowing, ploughing and mowing the grass with a scythe.
Hermann Göring Collection
Hermann Görings entire art collection comprised some 4,263 paintings, sculptures and tapestries. He planned to display them in the ‘Norddeutsche Galerie’, an art gallery which should be founded after the war. The Norddeutsche Gallery was to be erected as an annex to Karinhall in the big forest of the Schorfheide, near Berlin. According to the German Historical Museum, 8 paintings and 12 huge gobelins by Werner Peiner were part of the collection. Werner Peiner gave six paintings as a present to Hermann Göring, the last one in 1944. Below the Peiner works in the Goring Collection:
– ‘Mädchen mit Pfau’, GDK 1938, room 3. Given as a present by Peiner in 1938;
– ‘Winterlandschaft’. Given as a present by Peiner in 1939;
– ‘Ostafrikansiche Steppe’, GDK 1938, room 3. Given as a present by Peiner in 1939;
– ‘Köln im Schnee’. Given as a present by the banker baron Eduard Freiherr von der Heydt in 1939;
– ‘Europa und den Stier’, oil on wood, 151 x 170 cm. Bought from the artist in 1937;
– ‘Thor’, oil on wood, 170 x 83 cm. Given as a present by Peiner 1943;
– ‘Freya’, oil on wood, 170 x 83 cm. Given as a present by Peiner in 1943;
– ‘Sommerlandschaft in der Eifel’. Given as a present by Peiner in 1943;
– ‘Falkenjagd’: 4 gobelins depicting Heinrich I, Friedrich II and Arabic hunting-sceneries. Each 466 x 275 cm;
– ‘Weibliche Tugenden’: 4 gobelins depicting ‘Rasse’, ‘Grazie’, ‘Frohsinn’ and ’Stolz’. Each 362 x 259 cm;
– ‘Weibliche Tugenden’: 4 gobelins depicting ‘Wurde’, ‘Güte’, ‘Sanftmut’ and ‘Klugheit’. Each 362 x 259 cm.
‘Freya’, left part of ‘Judgement of Paris’. Size: 170 x 83 cm. Given by Peiner at 12 January 1943 as a present to Göring. Part of the Hermann Goring Collection.
‘Villagio dell ‘Eifel sotto la neve’
Werner Peiner, ‘Eifeldorf im Schnee’ (‘Village in the Eifel in Snow’ or ‘Villagio dell’ Eifel sotto la neve’), 1933. Displayed at the Venice Biennale 1934.
Left: ‘Eifeldorf im Schnee‘. Sold by an American auction house in 2009. Size 69 x 48 cm. Oil on board.
Right: ‘Eifeldorf im Schnee’, depicted in the official exhibition catalogue of the 1934-Venice Biennale. Also depicted in ‘Das Bild‘, September 1935, as well as in ‘Das bäuerliche Jahr, Ein Buch vom Bauerntum in Bildern deutscher Maler’, 1939.
Left: Werner Peiner, ‘Grosse Übersicht über das hügliche Land‘ (‘Great View on the Hills‘). Depicted in ‘Das Bild‘, September 1935.
Right: Werner Peiner, ‘Sonnenaufgang‘ (‘Sunrise’). Created in 1932. Displayed at the ‘Ausstellung unter der Schirmherrschaft des Ministerpräsidenten Generaloberst Göring in der Pr. Akademie der Kunste‘, Berlin, 1938.
Werner Peiner, ‘Frühmorgen in der Eifel‘ (‘Eary Morning in the Eifel Mountains‘), 1932. Displayed in the permanent exhibition of ‘Kunstmuseum Moritzburg’, Halle. Photo: 2017.
Left: Werner Peiner, ‘Potrait of Martha Quandt‘. Created in 1926. Size 61 x 55 cm. Offered by a German art gallery in 2017.
Right: Werner Peiner, ‘Bildnis Frau Kruspig‘ (‘Portrait of Mrs. Kruspig‘). Created in 1929. Size 74 x 43 cm. Sold by a German auction house in 2007.
Werner Peiner, ‘Europa und der Stier’ (‘Europe and the Bull’), created 1937. Oil on wood, size 151 x 170 cm. Bought by Hermann Göring who hung it at the head of his bed in Carinnhall. Part of the Hermann Göring collection.
Left: in the possession of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlung.
Right: ‘Europa und der Stier’ by Peiner in the bedroom of Göring in Carinnhall.
‘Europa und der Stier’ displayed in 1977 at the Exhibition ‘Deutschland 1930-1939: Verbot, Anpassung, Exil’ in Kunsthaus Zürich, Switzerland. Left at the photo: Ivo Saliger, ‘Urteil des Paris’ (‘Judgement of Paris’), GDK 1939, room 8:
‘Deutschland 1930-1939, Verbot Anpassung Exil‘, Kunsthaus Zürich, 1977
One of the most important artists during the Third Reich
Werner Peiner (1897–1984) was a German painter who was very successful during the National Socialists’ regime. At the start of World War I Peiner voluntarily joined the army. He was promoted to Lieutenant and served at the Western front. After World War I he studied painting at the Düsseldorfer Kunstakademie. In the 1920s he painted mostly in the style of the Neue Sachlichkeit/ Magic Realisme (Magisch Realismus). In 1933 he became Professor Monumentmalerie at the Düsseldorfer Akademie. His art was especially appreciated by Hermann Göring: a nude by Peiner (‘Europa und der Stier’ or ‘Europe and the Bull’, created in 1937), hung at the head of Görings bed. From 1931 to 1934 Peiner created his well known Blut und Boden paintings, works depicting farmers ploughing German soil surrounded by hilly-landscapes and horses and cows. During that time he created the famous ‘Deutsche Erde’ (GDK 1938 room 3) which was in 1933 given to the ‘Honorary Citizen Adolf Hitler’ by the City of Mechernich. Hitler, who was very enthusiastic about this painting by Peiner, ordered that it be hung in the New Chancellery. The painting has been lost.
In 1935/1936 Peiner made a study trip to Tanganjika, Kenya, Uganda and the Congo. Several of his paintings from this time hung later in the Great German Art Exhibitions. Besides lions, elephants and rhinoceros he also painted the Massai, a tribe that was depicted – according to the German racial ideas – as a strong people, the African variant of the Übermensch. Famous works of that time include ‘Sonnenaufgang über dem ostafrikanischen Graben’ (GDK 1938 room 3), ‘Löwen an der Tränke’ and the tryptich ‘Das Schwarze Paradies’ (GDK 1938 room 3).
From 1936 until the end of World War II Werner Peiner was the head of the Hermann-Göring-Meisterschule für Malerei in Kronenburg. Peiner became a member of the NSDAP in 1937. In the same year he became a member of the Preußischen Akademie der Künste. In 1938 his work ‘Feldarbeit’ (in the possession at that time of the Kunstsammlungen der Stadt Düsseldorf) was displayed at the exhibition ‘Deutscher Bauern – Deutsches Land’ in Berlin (‘Ausstellung unter der Schirmherrschaft von Reichsbauernführer Reichsminister R. Walther Darré und Reichsleiter Alfred Rosenberg’).
From 1937 to 1944 he made 19 designs for huge Gobelin tapestries (10 meters by 5.4 meters), which were meant to be placed in the marble gallery of the Neu Kanzlei (146 meters long). Several of these designs were published in the magazine Kunst im Deutschen Reich in 1940 (‘Die Schlacht im Teutoburger Walde’, ‘Die Belagerung der Mariënburg’, ‘Die Schlacht bei Leipzig’, etc). In 1944 Adolf Hitler included him in the Sonderliste der Gottbegnadeten-Liste.
Peiner was represented in the Great German Art Exhibitions with 33 works. In 1938 the GDK mounted a special display of paintings by Werner Peiner: the Sonderschau. The Sonderschau was a special exhibition that garthered works of a highly valued single artist -one per year- in one room.
‘Stuhl mit Flasche’ (‘Sedia e bottiglia’ or ‘Chear with Bottle’), 1928, by Peiner was displayed at the XXI Venice Biennale 1938. ‘Deutsche Erde’ (‘Terra tedesca’) and ‘Eifeldorf im Schnee’ (‘Villagio dell’Eifel sotto la neve’ or ‘Village in the Eifel in snow’) were earlier displayed at the XIX Venice Biennale, 1934.
Eight paintings and twelve huge gobelins by Werner Peiner were part of the Herman Göring Collection and destinated to be displayed in the ‘Norddeutsche Galerie’. Six of the paintings were given by Peiner as a present to Hermann Göring, the last one in 1944.
After the war Peiner was detained for a period and his works were confiscated. From 1948 until his death he lived in Burg Haus Vorst in Leichlingen/Rheinland. In the after war period he created Gobelin Tapestries for the Gerlin-Konzern and for the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie.
Some of his designs for the Neu Kanzlei Gobelin Tapestries hang in Rheinischen Landesmuseum Bonn (2013). ‘Europa und der Stier’ is in the possession of the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlung; it was displayed in 1977 at the Exhibition ‘Deutschland 1930-1939: Verbot, Anpassung, Exil’ in Kunsthaus Zürich, Switzerland. In 2012 the exibition ‘Werner Peiner, Verführer oder Verführter, Kunst im Nationalsozialismus‘, took place in Gmünd.
The Deutsches Historisches Museum holds ‘Steppenmorgen’ (GDK 1938 room 3) and ‘Winterlandschaft’. ‘Frühmorgen in der Eifel‘ (‘Eary Morning in the Eifel Mountains‘), 1932 is displayed in the permanent exhibition of ‘Kunstmuseum Moritzburg’, Halle.
The Louvre museum holds two gobelin tapestries by Werner Peiner, meant for Görings Carinnhall: ‘Le Baldaquin’ (‘Thronhimmel’) and ‘Globe Terrestre’ (‘Erdkugel’). The Louvre also holds the Peiner gobelin tapestries ‘Char de Chevaux’ (‘Der Geist’) and ‘Char de Taureax’ (‘Die Fruchtbarkeit’). The last two tapestries, produced in Germany and meant for the official residence of Foreign Minister Von Ribbentrop in Berlin, were confiscated in 1945/49 in Germany by the France.
In 2018 two gobelins by Werner Peiner were displayed at the exhibition ‘Au fil du siècle, 1918-2018 – Chefs d’oeuvre de la tapisserie’, in the French state-owned museum Galerie des Gobelins in Paris. Displayed were ‘the best tapestries produced in France in the last 100 years’. Besides the ‘Globe Terrestre’ (‘Erdkugel’), also the monumental gobelin ‘Char de Taureax’ (‘Chariot with Bulls’) by Peiner -containing 3.5 kilograms of gold, was displayed.
The original design of the gobelin ‘Der Thronhimmel’ by Peiner, was displayed at the exhibition ‘Nazi Design’, Design Museum Den Bosch, The Netherlands, 8 September 2019 – 1 March 2020. This world-wide highly publicized exhibition attracted over 130.000 visitors in six months. The exhibition was covered on the front page of the New York Times and Bild, and i.a. in the Guardian, Le Monde, Le Figaro, Paris Match, Spiegel, Welt, Tagesspiegel, El Pais and all Dutch newspapers. On television the exposition was covered i.a. by the ARD, ZDF, DW News, Aljazeera, AFP News Agency, SBS World News, and all mayor television chanels in The Netherlands. Because of the enormous popularity of the exhibition, the museum extended opening hours, opened its doors also on Mondays, and finally it extended the exhibition by 6 weeks.
* As also stated in our General Terms and Conditions, German Art Gallery offers the depicted postcards for sale. Prices on request.
** Pictures used with permission from the heirs of Werner Peiner.